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Shrinkage is perhaps the most important process effect on the mechanical properties of paper. Recently, Wahlstrom and Fellers showed that tensile stiffness, tensile strength, compressive strength and breaking strain are very closely correlate with sheet shrinkage or wet straining. A most likely explanation is that shrinkage affects micro-compressions, which in turn affects fiber properties, which affect sheet properties. Read more at "Effects of Paper Shrinkage" and "Property Relationships", below.
XEROGRAPHIC (copy) PAPER
Read more at Summary of Xerographic Paper Properties, below.
Paper qualities important in xerographic papers include stiffness, smoothness, electrical resistivity, friction coefficient, curl, moisture, sheet flatness, millwork, porosity and composition. The usual basis weight of xerographic paper is 20 pounds (17" x 22" 500 sheets) or 75 grams/sq. meter. Good manufacturing control should keep weight within 0.5-0.75 pounds of nominal 99% of the time. The choice of a caliper specification depends on factors such as the type of fuser roll used in the copy machine. There may be no single set of paper properties that are optimum for all xerographic machines (including ‘laser’ printers).
Click here if you are having Problems With Paper Curl in a Printer or Copier.
Available electronic articles:
Click below to see descriptions and get access to any of the following articles:
- Loading Curve Variables vs CME (.pdf, 4 pages)
- Effects of Paper Shrinkage (.pdf, 8 pages)
- Property Relationships (.pdf, 5 pages)
- Stiffness Index (.pdf, 5 pages)
- Residual Strain (.pdf, 8 pages)
- Predicting Modulus & Properties (.pdf, 18 pages)
- Residual Strain From Heating (.pdf, 5 pages)
- Accelerating Creep by Heating (.pdf, 6 pages)
- Tensile Loading Tutorial (.pdf, 8 pages)
- Curl From One Sided Drying (.pdf, 4 pages)
- Paper Curl Self-Tutorial (.pdf, 11 pages)
- Curl Basics (.pdf, 5 pages)
- Fundamentals of Paper Curl (.pdf, 18 pages)
- Dimensional Stability (.pdf, 18 pages)
- Aspects of Dimensional Stability (.pdf, 15 pages)
- Measuring Dimensional Stability (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Improving Curl Proposal (.pdf, 20 pages)
- Fuser Curl Mechanisms (.pdf, 8 pages)
- Fuser Curl At Higher Dwell Times (.pdf, 3 pages)
- Curl Terminology (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Hot Bend Curl Test (.pdf, 8 pages)
- Warm Oven Curl Test (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Procedure to Characterize CME (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Curl Tests summarized (.pdf, 3 pages)
- Xerographic Paper Self Tutorial (.pdf, 10 pages)
- Xerographic Paper Properties (.pdf, 4 pages)
- Basis Weight Conversion Factors (.pdf, 1 pages)
- Inkjet Paper Testing (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Static Problems (.pdf, 3 pages)
- Twenty Questions (Copy Paper) (.pdf, 2 pages)
- Imperial Weights and Sizes (.pdf, 3 pages)
- Loose Debris Evaluation Methods (.pdf, 1 pages)
- Twelve Steps to Curl (.pdf, 1 pages)
- Do the Decurl Tango (.pdf, 6 pages)
- Paper Science Notes-Xerographic Paper (.pdf, 81 pages)
- The Seven Steps To Fixing Laser Curl Problems (.pdf, 2 pages)
Click here to see descriptions and get articles emailed to you.
For questions about paper curl, dimensional stability, copy paper or other paper properties send an email to TechMan@PaperCurl.com.
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Charles (Chuck) Green, retired
Publisher, CPPN Electronic Library
Consulting: Curl, Xerographic Paper, Paper Physics
23 Maryvale Drive, Webster, NY 14580